The Total Estimated Cost Of Building A 4 Bedroom Duplex Apartment In Nigeria.

This article emphasizes the cost of building a duplex in Nigeria. The essence of the article is to give builders insights on costs associated with construction. Most times, the property owner hardly knows anything going on with his/her structure other than coming to inspect its progress

What are the benefits of building a duplex?

Well designed 4 bedroom duplex apartment

By the very nature of duplex house designs, they create an ambience that supports comfort, privacy and luxury.

Duplex accommodation in Nigeria have some common features which include:

1. Kitchen on the ground floor

2. Dining area on the ground floor

3. Guest room on the ground floor

4. Visitor’s toilet on the ground floor

5. Family bedrooms on the first floor

6. Laundry room on the first floor and

7. Family lounge on the first floor

From the list of the common features of duplex houses listed above, one thing is clear, everything that relates to the family happens on the upper floor where no visitors are allowed. This means that duplex home designs provides complete privacy.

Moving forward to the topic of discussion, it may cost you more or less when building your own duplex in Nigeria as a result of the various factors listed above. However, below is the estimated cost for a standard 4 bedroom duplex in Nigeria.

Cost of Building a Duplex in Nigeria

Before you start the foundation of the house, make sure you have all the required APPROVED documents for the construction process.

1. Architectural drawings.

2. Structural drawings.

3. Mechanical drawings.

4. Electrical drawings.

Don’t do anything about building without any of the aforementioned point above.

In calculating the cost of building a duplex in Nigeria, it is advisable to breakdown the construction process into stages. This is the norm and is actually helpful in planning your progress. For a duplex, the construction stages can be split into the following:

  • Foundation / Soak-away Stage.
  • DPC to lintel level/ground floor Stage.
  • First floor/decking stage.
  • Staircase Stage.
  • First-floor lintel stage.
  • Roofing Stage.
  • Plastering / Finishing Stage.

Cost of Foundation / Soak-away Stage.

This is the first stage of construction and it includes setting out, digging, concrete work, block laying, backfilling and flooring as the processes in this stage. Furthermore, the cost of this stage differs with respect to the soil condition.

Material Requirements for Setting-out with profiles

4 pieces of 1 x 12 plank @ NGN 1,200 each plus NGN 800 (for dividing each into 5 (@ NGN 200 each) = NGN 5,600

4 bundles of Pegs @ NGN 1,200 each = NGN 4,800

2″ and 3″ Nails = NGN 1,200 worth of nails

4 bundles of rope @ NGN 200 each = NGN 800

Labour = NGN 5,000

Estimated cost of the aforementioned materials = NGN 17,400.

Material Requirements for Digging / Excavation

Some diggers and shovels will be needed for the job. These tools can cost about NGN 2,000 to rent.

Labour = NGN 10,000

Estimated cost of digging = NGN 12,000.

Material Requirements for Concrete Columns

The duplex design affects the cost of this section as this cost is determined by the number of columns in the design. The structural drawing plays a key role in this section, as it indicates the number and design clearly. For the basis of this calculation, we have earlier said we are using a 4 bedroom duplex. Hence, the number of columns in this design amounts to twenty-two (22) nos.

The standard column dimension is 350mm by 350mm by 3000mm (height).

For constructing one column (standard mix ratio 1: 3: 6 comprising cement, sand, aggregate), you need the following materials below for 22 nos concrete column:

35 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 each = NGN 91,000

5 tonnes of sand = NGN 10,750

20 tonnes of granite = NGN 100,000

1 tonne 12mm steel Reinforcements = NGN 170,000

Some diggers, pans, and shovels will be needed for the job. These tools can cost about NGN 5,000 to rent.

Labour = NGN 90,000

Estimated cost of concrete columns = NGN 466,750.

Material Requirements for Concrete work / Blinding

For a standard foundation of 150 mm base-thickness, assuming 0.45 m (breadth or height) and 85.5 m (entire length) = 5.77125 m3

bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 each = NGN 52,000

20 tonnes of sand x 2 = NGN 80,000

20 tonnes of Granite = NGN 100,000

We don’t need reinforcements (Iron bars) because the soil is good, firm and dry.

Liters of water as needed.

Labour = NGN 25,000

Estimated cost of concrete work = NGN 257,000.

Material Requirements for Laying Foundation Blocks

Using 9-inch blocks and laying 4 coaches, you will need

12 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 each = NGN 31,200

644 pieces of 9-inch vibrated blocks (including 10 percent wastage) @ NGN 170 each = NGN 109,480

Plumbing work = NGN 25,000

The remaining sand from concrete work will be used here.

Labour = NGN 35,000

Estimated cost of laying foundation blocks = NGN 200,680.

Material Requirements for Filling

I suggest digging the soak-away and septic tank alongside making the foundation so that the soil dug-up from the soak-away pit, septic tank and well can be used for filling the foundation. This will save you the cost of buying some trips of sand for foundation filling, and also save you the cost of clearing the dug-up soil in a case where it is not used for filling.

After filling the foundation, water it for about 10 hours and leave it for days (or some weeks) before flooring for natural compaction. In the end, you might need to buy just a few trips of sand if the soil dug-up from the well and septic tank is not enough.

Lets Assume you buy:

3 trips of 20 tonnes laterite (fairly clayey) at NGN 18,000 = NGN 54,000

Labour = NGN 10,000

Estimated cost of filling foundation = NGN 64,000

Material Requirements for Foundation Casting / Flooring

25 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 65,000

Waterproof / nylon = NGN 15,000

Remaining granite and sand from concrete work will be used here.

Labour = NGN 18,000

Estimated cost of flooring = NGN 98,000

Material Requirements for Septic Tank, Soak-away pit and Well

The septic tank, soak-away pit, and well should be constructed first in order to have water for the work and sand for filling the foundation later.

700 pieces of 6-inch vibrated blocks @ NGN 150 / block (for a septic tank of 3m x 3m x 3m) = NGN 105,000.

22 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 57,200 (including plastering).

Number of well-rings as required.

Sand and granite from concrete work will be used here.

Labor for septic tank, soak-away pit and well = NGN 80,000

Estimated cost of constructing both the septic tank, soak-away and well = NGN 242,200.

Total Estimated Cost for this stage = NGN 1,272,030 (excluding the cost of well rings).

Cost of Construction From Damp Proof Course (D.P.C) To Lintel Level

This is the next stage in the construction process and begins where the German floor ends. It covers the main block work including wall partitions for the various spaces in the house. The materials listed below are just estimates of what you get in a modest 3-bedroom flat. Again, ensure you get a Bill of Quantities for your building plan as that’s the only way to know the exact material requirements for your house. This stage ends at the roof level.

Material Requirements and Labour for Block work

2100pcs of 6-inch stone dust vibrated blocks @ NGN 150 = NGN 315,000.

(The cost increases when you use 9-inch blocks)

15 tonnes of sharp sand = NGN 40,000

30 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 78,000

Labour = NGN 120,000

Estimated cost of block work = NGN 553,000. (This includes the two coaches of blocks after lintel)

Material Requirement for Lintel Casting

20 length of 12mm rod @ NGN 2,100 / length = NGN 42,000

10 length of stirrups @ NGN 500 / length = NGN 5,000

35 length of 1 x 12 x 18 wood @ NGN 1,700 / length = NGN 59,500

Nails plus wire for binding = NGN 13,000

8 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 20,800

Remaining sand will be used here.

Remaining granite from concrete work is used.

Labour plus carpenter = NGN 30,000

Estimated cost of the lintel level = NGN 170,300

Estimated Total Cost for this stage = NGN 723,300.

Cost of First Floor Decking Stage

For this stage, we would require the total floor area in cubic meters since there is a depth to it. The floor is 6 inches (150mm) thick. The total cubic meter for the used floor plan is 39.6 cubic meters. Hence, the cost of the reinforced concrete floor slab with ratio 1:2:4 is as follows:

Here you would need the following:

  • Bamboo
  • Cement
  • Sand
  • Granite
  • Reinforcements
  • wood

It is a long process of calculating so I have broken this down to arrive at the cost below.

NGN 25,000 per cubic meter for 39.6 cubic meters = NGN 990,000.

Estimated Total Cost for this stage = NGN 990,000.

Cost of Staircase Stage

For this stage, we would require the total floor area in cubic meters since there is a depth to it. The floor is 6 inches (150mm) thick. The total cubic meter for the staircase is 3 cubic meters. Hence, the cost of the reinforced concrete floor slab with ratio 1:2:4 is as follows:

Here you would need the following:

  • Cement
  • Sand
  • Granite
  • Reinforcements
  • wood

It is a long process of calculating so I have broken this down to arrive at the cost below.

NGN 25,000 per cubic meter for 3 cubic meters = NGN 75,000.

Estimated Total Cost for this stage = NGN 75,000.

Cost of Construction From First Floor To Lintel Level

This stage covers the main block work including wall partitions for the various spaces in the house. The materials listed below are just estimates of what you get in a modest 4-bedroom duplex. Again, ensure you get a Bill of Quantities for your building plan as that’s the only way to know the exact material requirements for your house. This stage ends at the roof level.

Material Requirements and Labour for Block work

2100pcs of 6-inch stone dust vibrated blocks @ NGN 150 = NGN 315,000.

(The cost increases when you use 9-inch blocks)

15 tonnes of sharp sand = NGN 40,000

30 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 78,000

Labour = NGN 120,000

Estimated cost of block work = NGN 553,000. (This includes the two coaches of blocks after lintel)

Material Requirement for Lintel Casting

20 length of 12mm rod @ NGN 2,100 / length = NGN 42,000

10 length of stirrups @ NGN 500 / length = NGN 5,000

35 length of 1 x 12 x 18 wood @ NGN 1,700 / length = NGN 59,500

Nails plus wire for binding = NGN 13,000

8 bags of cement @ NGN 2,600 = NGN 20,800

Remaining sand will be used here.

Remaining granite from concrete work is used.

Labour plus carpenter = NGN 30,000

Estimated cost of the lintel level = NGN 170,300

Estimated Total Cost for this stage = NGN 723,300.

Cost of Roofing Duplex Stage

The cost of roofing varies greatly with the type of roofing materials and design you choose to use. The cost given below represents 0.45 mm thick aluminum roofing sheets. The true cost of all stages still remains that shown on the bill of quantity document.

Material Requirements for Roofing

320 length of 2 x 3 x 12 wood @ NGN 450 = NGN 144,000

45 length of 2 x 6 x 12 @ NGN 840 = NGN 38,250

25 length of 1 x 12 x 12 wood @ NGN 1,400 = NGN 35,000

1/2 bag of 2-inch nails @ NGN 5,800 = NGN 2,900

11/2 bags of 3-inch nails @ NGN 6,000 = NGN 9,000

1/2 bag of 4-inch nails @ NGN 6,500 = NGN 3,250

Aluminium (0.45mm thick) roofing, transportation and Labour = NGN 685,900

Total Estimated Cost for the roofing stage = NGN 918,300.

Cost of Finishing Stage

This stage includes plastering, wiring, plumbing, fixing of windows, doors, tiles, and other essentials. The cost here varies with respect to the quality of materials you use. Below is an estimate for a very modest finishing.

Material Requirements for Electrical works

Wires, Pipes, Conduit Boxes, etc = NGN 400,000

Material Requirements for Mechanical and Plumbing Works

Kitchen sink, Pipes, WC, Washing Hand Basin, Overhead Tank, Shower, etc = NGN 500,000

Material Requirements for Ceiling

Woods for nogging, P.O.P Sheets, External wood finishing, P.V.C Boards, Tank nails, etc plus labor = NGN 450,000

Material Requirements for Windows and Doors

Windows, doors, burglary proof, and fixtures plus labor = NGN 1,500,000

Material Requirements for Wall Rendering and Painting

Plastering and painting plus labor = NGN 1,500,000

Material Requirements for Floor Finishes

Tiles and others plus labor = NGN 1,000,000

Estimated Total Cost for this stage = NGN 5,350,000.

Grand Total = NGN 1,272,030 + NGN 723,300 + NGN 990,000 + NGN 75,000 + NGN 723,300 + NGN 918,300 + NGN 4,350,000 = NGN 10,051,930

The Total Cost Of Building 4bedroom Duplex

As you can see from the calculations, we arrived at a total cost of building a 4 bedroom duplex which is a little above NGN 10,000,000. To Build a standard duplex in Nigeria one is expected to have between N10 million to 20 million Naira.

Conclusion

The design is a very simple one with an aesthetically conscious approach. For more complicated designs, the cost could exceed what we have calculated above. As for the furniture fittings, you have a variety of options you can choose from.

Thanks for your time, incase of any mistakes don’t hesitate to correct us on the comment section and you can educate others by sharing this on.

10 Keys Typing Test

Introduction To 10 Keys

10 key series are the bunches of number and symbol keys that placed the right side of any keyboard. Also10 key pad is the group of numbers and symbols on the right side of most keyboards, it can also be a number pad with no keyboard attached. Ten key speed is measured with a Keystrokes per Hour Test.

INSTRUCTIONS

keyboard

1. Type the highlighted portion then press enter.
2. Use the small finger of your right hand to press enter.
3. Place your middle finger over the key “5”, your index finger on “4” and ring finger on “6”.
4. Remember not to use your left hand while practicing 10 key typing.
5. Do not to look at-the keyboard while typing.

The Importance of 10 keys knowledge

Ten key typing is a vital part of typing and every typist should know 10 key typing.

Accuracy is extremely important because proof-reading is very difficult when you are trying to read a bunch of numbers.

The minimum required KPH for many data entry jobs is 9,000. Scoring over 12,000 KPH with good accuracy (98%) on our free 10 key practice tests will qualify you for just about any data entry job.

Having 10 keys typing skill is good and helpful in typing zip code, mobile numbers or simply calculate any sum.

Use the comment section let’s discuss more on 10 keys, your contribution can help other readers.

Step on How to use WhatsApp on your PC

WhatsApp is a free messaging App which have millions of users across the world, whatsapp unlike others messaging apps is free and easy to operate, but 98 % of it users are using mobile phone, today, knowing how to use whatsApp on your computer answer the question that brought you here.

There are many ways to use whatsApp on your PC, we will be teaching two out of the numerous method available.

How to use WhatsApp on your PC

1 whatsApp Web

By far the easiest way how to use WhatsApp on a PC is WhatsApp Web, an official web-based client that was first announced by WhatsApp co-founder Jan Koum in 2015. It works in all major web browsers, except for Internet Explorer, and it takes just few steps to get started with it:

Here’s what to do depending on your phone type:

Using Android

  1. Open web.whatsapp.com on your computer using the web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari or Edge are compatible)
  2. Open the WhatsApp app on your phone by tapping on it
  3. Open and select Menu and then Select WhatsApp Web
  4. There will be a QR code on the computer screen. Scan this using your phone
connecting your whatsApp to your PC using Android phone

5. WhatsApp will then open in your computer browser and you’ll be able to use it as to send messages as you would on your phone

6. When you’ve finished your session, remember to log out. Click on the three-dot menu above the chats list on the left hand side of the screen

7. Click on Log out at the bottom of the list  

How to use WhatsApp on your PC

Using iphone mobile

Using iphone to connect your whatsApp to your PC is as simple as using Android only if you understand the processes involved, the processes are explained below;

  1. Open web.whatsapp.com on your computer using the web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari or Edge are compatible)
  2. Open the WhatsApp app on your phone by tapping on it
  3. If you are in a chat, navigate back to the main Chats screen and select Settings from the bottom menu
  4. Then select WhatsApp Web
Connecting WhatsApp to your PC using iphone devices

5. There will be a QR code on the computer screen. Scan this using your phone

6. WhatsApp will then open in your computer browser and you’ll be able to use it as to send messages as you would on your phone

7. When you’ve finished your session, remember to log out. Click on the three-dot menu above the chats list on the left hand side of the screen

8. Click on Log out at the bottom of the list  

NOTE: The only major limitation of WhatsApp Web is that you must keep your mobile device connected to the internet for the browser client to work. Should you, for example, run out of battery power, WhatsApp web would instantly disconnect you, making it less than ideal for emergency situations.

Turning on desktop notifications

After you have launched the WhatsApp interface on your PC for the first time, you will have the option of turning on desktop notifications. This option will be highlighted in blue above your chat list.

If you want to turn on desktop notifications:

  1. Click Turn on desktop notifications
  2. A box will pop up asking you to allow notifications. Click Allow

2. WhatsApp Desktop App

Besides the official web-based client, WhatsApp now also has an official desktop client for macOS and Windows computers. The desktop client runs on Windows 8 or higher and macOS x 10.9 or higher.

It was launched in May of 2016, and it offers much of the same functionality as the mobile client, with a few notable exceptions. Perhaps the biggest limitation is that WhatsApp currently doesn’t allow users to make audio and video calls from desktop operating systems. To set up the desktop client:

  1. Download the version that corresponds with your operating system.

2. Install it as you would any other application.

3. Launch the desktop client and wait for it to display a QR code.

4. Grab your mobile device, open WhatsApp, go to Settings, and select WhatsApp Web.

5. Scan the QR code and enjoy WhatsApp on your Mac or Windows computer.

Qr Code

Just like with WhatsApp Web, you must keep your mobile device connected to the internet to use WhatsApp on your computer. To overcome this limitation, use the next method.

Check Out Samsung’s Galaxy S10 Lite specification And Price.

As of April 16th 2020, Samsung announce the lunching date of Samsung Galaxy S10 Lite which is April 17th 2020 and it will be available for sale for Samsung online shopping or Amazon at the rate of $650 Dollars.

The Galaxy S10 Lite is a budget version of the Galaxy S10 flagship, and it has a 6.7-inch Super AMOLED Infinity-O display at 2400 x 1080 resolution, a Snapdragon 855 processor, and a triple-lens rear camera setup with a 5-megapixel f/2.4 macro lens; a 48-megapixel F2.0 wide-angle lens with “Super Steady OIS;” and a 12-megapixel f/2.2 ultra-wide with a 123-degree angle lens.

Samsung announced the Galaxy S10 Lite at CES 2020.

Check Out The best Google Pixel deals — Unlocked Pixel 4 and more!

The Google Pixel family has long had a list of features that make it a go-to for die-hard fans. Whether it’s the stock Android experience or the powerful camera, the Pixel packs some features that set it apart from the pack. As Android nerds, we’re always on the look out for Google Pixel deals.

Here are some of the best deals on everything from the Pixel 4 XL to 2 XL and everything in between.

Best Google Pixel deals

  1. Google Pixel 4 and 4 XL deals
  2. Google Pixel 3a and 3a XL deals
  3. Google Pixel 3 and 3a deals
  4. Other Google Pixel deals

 1. Google Pixel 4 deals

Google Pixel 4 colors and camera closeup

The Pixel 4 is the latest and greatest device from Google. If you want the absolute best camera experience and a fast, snappy, high-end phone then look no further.

For the best unlocked Pixel 4 deals, hit up the widgets below. Bear in mind that, at Best Buy, you need to activate today to save the extra $50. Google Pixel 4 — Unlocked Grab the latest phone made by Google. Packing a dual rear camera and a Snapdragon 855 processor, the Pixel 4 is the purest Android experience available.

Google Pixel 4 XL Grab a Pixel 4 XL for the large phone lovers in your life and save big at both Amazon and Best Buy. You can take your choice of colors and storage options too.

If you don’t mind committing to a contract, you can save even more on these devices. Here are some great deals that require a few extra steps:


 2. Google Pixel 3a deals

Google Pixel 3a XL Purple-ish

Stepping back half of a generation, the Google Pixel 3a and 3a XL still make excellent choices for mid-range devices. They step down to a Snapdragon 670 processor, but retain the cutting edge features like Google’s powerful camera and integrated Google Assistant.

Check out both sizes and all four color options with the widgets below. These are the unlocked options, but the Amazon price is equal to the Best Buy price unless you choose to activate to a carrier immediately on Best Buy. Google Pixel 3a Grab Google’s midrange Pixel and enjoy the trademark features without the price tag. It steps down to the Snapdragon 670, but you may not even notice with the powerful camera and stock Android experience.

Google Pixel 3a XL Step up to the larger of Google’s midrange devices with the Pixel 3a XL. You get the same powerful camera and features on a 6.3-inch display.

 3. Google Pixel 3 deals

google pixel 3 back clearly white camera fingerprint sensor

While Google has recently ended sales of the Pixel 3 and 3 XL, you can still pick them up for great prices at other retailers. The Pixel 3 family comes with a Snapdragon 845 processor onboard and dual front cameras for great selfies.

These unlocked Pixel 3 deals from Best Buy require activation today, or $50 more if you activate later. You’ll notice that the Pixel 3 price is no better than the Pixel 4 deals right now, so you might as well go for the later model. Google Pixel 3 Grab a third-generation Pixel and save big. Combine a Snapdragon 845 processor with the dual front cameras for a next-level experience.

Google Pixel 3 XL Live the notch, love the notch. Embrace the Google Pixel 3 XL and rely on the dual front-facing cameras for all of your selfie needs.

 4. Other Google Pixel deals

The Google Pixel 2 and Pixel 2 XL.

If you’re itching for a dose of Pixel nostalgia you can still pick up a Google Pixel 2 XL on Amazon. It’s been factory refurbished so it’s tested to work and look like a brand-new product. The Pixel 2 XL can still be an effective daily driver with its Snapdragon 835 processor and powerful camera. It’s also still getting security updates.

Check Out The OnePlus 8 series that will tout Google Stadia support, to be release soon.

Today, OnePlus unveiled its latest series of devices: the OnePlus 8 and 8 Pro. In a surprise announcement during the launch event, the company revealed that the OnePlus 8 line will also tout Google Stadia support.

Unfortunately, OnePlus didn’t mention whether the devices will feature Google Stadia support out of the box or not.

But the OnePlus spokesperson also said that the company will enable Google Stadia on a “selection of other OnePlus devices” but neglected to mention which ones and when they will receive it.

what do you think?

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

Today you will be surprise to see the big amount of money most top company’s CEOS go home with annualy, but no call for alarm, this same CEO’S are the brain behind the company’s annual billion harvest.

CEO’S of any company need to be well paid because not everyone has the ability to manage a world class business, below are the list of top 5 most paid CEO’S in the world.

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

John J. Legere, T-Mobile

At the top of the list is John J. Legere, CEO of T-Mobile (TMUS). His total compensation package for 2018 was worth $66.5 million. This breaks down to a base salary of $1.9 million and $64.7 million in stock awards. This is a dramatic increase from his total compensation in 2017, which was $23.7 million.

Legere joined T-Mobile as CEO in September 2012. His claim to fame came from reinventing himself to connect with the hot millennial market and for taking the bold approach of no contracts for wireless customers. Both strategies worked well and Legere took T-Mobile from a flailing company to a powerhouse in the telecom sector.

Known for his eccentric personality and colorful wardrobe, he implemented many creative plans during his tenure, such as large discounts for first responders. In one of the biggest moves in Telecom news, T-Mobile will be merging with one of its competitors, Sprint. And with that final chess piece in place, Legere will be stepping down as CEO in 2020.

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

Jeffrey Storey, CenturyLink

Next up is Jeffrey Storey, CEO of CenturyLink, Inc. (CTL). Storey received compensation of $35.7 million. This included a $1.7 million base salary and stock awards of $34 million.

Storey is new to the role, having become CEO in 2018. Prior to this role, he was president and chief operating officer (COO) of the company and before that he was the CEO of Level 3 Communications when the company was acquired by CenturyLink.

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

Randall L. Stephenson, AT&T

As the CEO of AT&T, Inc. (T), one of the largest telecom companies in the world, Stephenson’s total compensation for 2018 was $29 million. That breaks down to $1.8 million in salary and $27.3 million in stock awards and other compensation.

Stephenson has grown AT&T to a market cap of $204 billion. A longtime employee of AT&T and its predecessor, SBC Communications, Stephenson took over as CEO in May 2007 and was named president one month later. The timing corresponded with the release of the iPhone and AT&T as the cutting-edge smartphone’s sole service provider. Stephenson has committed to staying on as CEO through 2020 but plans on stepping down after that.

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

Hans Vestberg, Verizon Communications

Vestberg, CEO of Verizon Communications, Inc. (VZ), saw a 126% jump in total compensation from the previous year, thanks to his new job as CEO, a position he took the same year, in 2018. The $22.2 million he received in 2018 breaks down to $1.2 million in base salary and $21 million in stock awards.

Vestberg took the position of CEO after joining in 2017 as the chief technology officer (CTO) and president of the Global Networks division. He worked on the company’s growing fiber network system and their move into the 5G network space. Before coming on board at Verizon, Vestberg was CEO of Ericsson.

The Top 5 Highest Paid Executives in Telecom 2020.

Chuck Robbins, Cisco Systems

As CEO of Cisco Systems (CSCO), Robbins’s total compensation was $21.3 million, which consisted of a base salary of $1.2 million and stock awards of $20 million.

Robbins became CEO of Cisco in 2015 and was a senior vice president of the company before that. He was also mentored by the previous CEO. Though his tenure has been brief, he has made a lot of progress at the company by modernizing its growth, building the company’s humanitarian image, and improving workplace diversity.

Conclution

CEOs of telecom companies do get paid quite a lot of money, but they provide a level of talent that keeps their companies at the top of the field while generating billions of dollars in revenue. Few people possess the necessary skills to perform such jobs.

What Is Bitcoin ₿? Bitcoin Definition, And All You Need To Know About Bitcoin.

Bitcoin () is a cryptocurrency. It is a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries.

Transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and started in 2009 when its source code was released as open-source software. Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Research produced by University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin.

Bitcoin has been criticized for its use in illegal transactions, its high electricity consumption, price volatility, and thefts from exchanges. Some economists, including several Nobel laureates, have characterized it as a speculative bubble. Bitcoin has also been used as an investment, although several regulatory agencies have issued investor alerts about bitcoin.

Creation

The domain name “bitcoin.org” was registered on 18 August 2008. On 31 October 2008, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System was posted to a cryptography mailing list. Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin software as open-source code and released it in January 2009. Nakamoto’s identity remains unknown.

On 3 January 2009, the bitcoin network was created when Nakamoto mined the first block of the chain, known as the genesis block. Embedded in the coinbase of this block was the text “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”.

This note references a headline published by The Times and has been interpreted as both a timestamp and a comment on the instability caused by fractional-reserve banking.

The receiver of the first bitcoin transaction was cypherpunk Hal Finney, who had created the first reusable proof-of-work system (RPoW) in 2004. Finney downloaded the bitcoin software on its release date, and on 12 January 2009 received ten bitcoins from Nakamoto.

Other early cypherpunk supporters were creators of bitcoin predecessors: Wei Dai, creator of b-money, and Nick Szabo, creator of bit gold. In 2010, the first known commercial transaction using bitcoin occurred when programmer Laszlo Hanyecz bought two Papa John’s pizzas for ₿10,000.

Understanding Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency. Balances of Bitcoin tokens are kept using public and private “keys,” which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Bitcoin keys should not be confused with a Bitcoin wallet, which is a physical or digital device which facilitates the trading of Bitcoin and allows users to track ownership of coins. The term “wallet” is a bit misleading, as Bitcoin’s decentralized nature means that it is never stored “in” a wallet, but rather decentrally on a blockchain.

Style notes: according to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word “Bitcoin” is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas “bitcoin” is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. “I traded 20 bitcoin”) or the units themselves. The plural form can be either “bitcoin” or “bitcoins.” Bitcoin is also commonly abbreviated as “BTC.”

How Bitcoin Works

Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as “miners,” are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. Currently, there are roughly 3 million bitcoins which have yet to be mined. In this way, Bitcoin (and any cryptocurrency generated through a similar process) operates differently from fiat currency; in centralized banking systems, currency is released at a rate matching the growth in goods in an attempt to maintain price stability, while a decentralized system like Bitcoin sets the release rate ahead of time and according to an algorithm.

Bitcoin mining is the process by which bitcoins are released into circulation. Generally, mining requires the solving of computationally difficult puzzles in order to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain. In contributing to the blockchain, mining adds and verifies transaction records across the network. For adding blocks to the blockchain, miners receive a reward in the form of a few bitcoins; the reward is halved every 210,000 blocks. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009 and is currently 12.5. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin’s debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of October 2019, the mining difficulty is over 12 trillion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use expensive, complex hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). These elaborate mining processors are known as “mining rigs.”

One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places.

What’s a Bitcoin Worth?

In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. More recently, the cryptocurrency has declined in value and more-or-less plateaued, save for a few periods of relatively lower price figures (the early portion of 2019, when prices hovered around $3500) and relatively higher ones (June and July of 2019, when prices briefly peaked at over $13,000). As of October 2019, Bitcoin seems to have found a new price point in the range of $8,000 to $9,000.

Bitcoin’s price is quite dependent on the size of its mining network, since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network’s aggregate processing power is known as the “hash rate,” referring to the number of times per second the network can attempt to complete a hashing puzzle necessary before a block can be added to the blockchain. As of October 23, 2019, the network reached a record high 114 quintillion hashes per second.

Decentralization

Bitcoin is decentralized:

  • Bitcoin does not have a central authority.
  • There is no central server; the bitcoin network is peer-to-peer.
  • There is no central storage; the bitcoin ledger is distributed.
  • The ledger is public; anybody can store it on their computer.
  • There is no single administrator; the ledger is maintained by a network of equally privileged miners.
  • Anybody can become a miner.
  • The additions to the ledger are maintained through competition. Until a new block is added to the ledger, it is not known which miner will create the block.
  • The issuance of bitcoins is decentralized. They are issued as a reward for the creation of a new block.
  • Anybody can create a new bitcoin address (a bitcoin counterpart of a bank account) without needing any approval.
  • Anybody can send a transaction to the network without needing any approval; the network merely confirms that the transaction is legitimate.

Trend towards centralization

Researchers have pointed out at a “trend towards centralization”. Although bitcoin can be sent directly from user to user, in practice intermediaries are widely used.

Bitcoin miners join large mining pools to minimize the variance of their income.

Because transactions on the network are confirmed by miners, decentralization of the network requires that no single miner or mining pool obtains 51% of the hashing power, which would allow them to double-spend coins, prevent certain transactions from being verified and prevent other miners from earning income. As of 2013 just six mining pools controlled 75% of overall bitcoin hashing power.

In 2014 mining pool Ghash.io obtained 51% hashing power which raised significant controversies about the safety of the network. The pool has voluntarily capped their hashing power at 39.99% and requested other pools to act responsibly for the benefit of the whole network. 2017 over 70% of the hashing power and 90% of transactions were operating from China.

According to researchers, other parts of the ecosystem are also “controlled by a small set of entities”, notably the maintenance of the client software, online wallets and simplified payment verification (SPV) clients.

Privacy

Bitcoin is pseudonymous, meaning that funds are not tied to real-world entities but rather bitcoin addresses. Owners of bitcoin addresses are not explicitly identified, but all transactions on the blockchain are public. In addition, transactions can be linked to individuals and companies through “idioms of use” (e.g., transactions that spend coins from multiple inputs indicate that the inputs may have a common owner) and corroborating public transaction data with known information on owners of certain addresses. Additionally, bitcoin exchanges, where bitcoins are traded for traditional currencies, may be required by law to collect personal information. To heighten financial privacy, a new bitcoin address can be generated for each transaction.

Who Invented Bitcoin?

No one knows who invented Bitcoin, or at least not conclusively. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. In the years since that time, many individuals have either claimed to be or have been suggested as the real-life people behind the pseudonym, but as of October 2019, the true identity (or identities) behind Satoshi remains obscured.

Before Satoshi

Though it is tempting to believe the media’s spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not typically happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin whitepaper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields. Perhaps unsurprisingly, many of the individuals behind the other projects named above have been speculated to have also had a part in creating Bitcoin.

Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?

There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin’s inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.

The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which is worth $13.9 billion as of October 25, 2019. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that stash of BTC. Someone in possession of that much Bitcoin could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it’s likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.

The Suspects

Major media outlets, cryptocurrency experts and other enthusiasts have ventured guesses as to the individual or group behind the persona of Satoshi Nakamoto. On Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before bitcoin.org was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki. 

In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. More recently, Australian computer scientist and cryptocurrency proponent Craig Wright has claimed to be Satoshi Nakamoto – although Wright also has claimed that Nakamoto plagiarized his 2008 thesis on the topic of crypocurrencies.

After a decade of Bitcoin, the world still does not know who is behind the world’s top digital currency, and it’s possible that the mystery will never be solved.

Can Satoshi’s Identity Be Proven?

It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of bitcoin.org, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer’s privacy.

Receiving Bitcoins As Payment

Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay). 

Working For Bitcoins

Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:

  • Cryptogrind brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its website
  • Coinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as other cryptocurrencies like Dogecoin and Litecoin
  • Jobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.com
  • BitGigs

Investing in Bitcoins

There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Many of those who endorse Bitcoin believe that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.

In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses. The sale of bitcoins that you mined or purchased from another party, or the use of bitcoins to pay for goods or services are examples of transactions which can be taxed.

Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins.

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How To Fix Message Not Sent On All Android Phones

Text messaging is one of the oldest means of communication in existence today. It has exist long before smart mobiles arrived and it is the simplest and the cheapest way to communicate.

Unfortunately, today’s social networks and chat apps are slightly replacing this secure and friendly means of communication on mobiles.

But then, most people still prefer to text rather than to use Whatsapp or other third-party social apps out there, probably because it feels more private, you know, no prying multimillion companies monitoring your activities.

Among the dangers that today’s popular chat apps such as Whatsapp have created is extreme addiction – pinging and typing without measure throughout a day can be very addictive since you pay virtually nothing for it.

How can one de-addict from such “free” advance means of communication? By reverting back to the basic.

How To Fix Message Not Sent On All Android Phones

If you use a messaging app on your Android phone, you might run into a common issue where messaging no longer works.

Thankfully, this kind of problem can usually be solved quickly as well. Here’s what to do to fix the problem if messaging suddenly stops on your Android smartphone.

How To Fix Message Not Sent On All Android Phones

  1. Go into your home screen and then tap on the Settings menu.
  2. Scroll down and then tap on the Apps selection.
  3. Then scroll down to the Message app in the menu and tap on it
  4. Then tap on the Storage selection.
  5. You should see two options; Clear Data and Clear Cache. Tap on both.

Hopefully, this simple procedure will help fix any messaging issues on your Android phone. Did this method work for you?

What Is Face App?: All You Need To Know About Face App.

What Is Face App?

Face app is a mobile application for IOS and Androids created by Russian company Wireless Lab and released January, 2017.

The app uses neural networks to stimulate how a person will look like as he or she ages. It uses artificial intelligence and neural face transformation to  make faces look creepy, hilarious and even change gender.

Over 150 million people use this app.

So many people on the internet are having fun with this latest social media app. Since its launch in 2017, the app has gone viral that if you have been on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and many other internet services that let people share photos, you would have seen it or see photos posted by people that have been made younger or older by the app.

This app can be used to make GIF and also save or upload your photo to its server in order to transform it.

Why Is It Popular?

Face app has become very popular because it allows users to upload photos of their faces and automatically edit them to look like their future selves.

 The app doesn’t only use neural network to change faces but it also put a smile on the face and change the gender too.

The gender swap is the most interesting feature of this fun app because it usually turns out quite convincing.

Face app uses the following filters to make faces look young, old, and change gender.

  • The smile and smile2 filters- this filters will add a smile to the face in a photo
  • Young filter. This filter will make the face younger
  • Old filter. The old filter will make a face older than it is already
  • Female filter. The filter will give the face female looks
  • Male filter. Will give the face male looks.

How To Use Face App

Face app can be used to filter photos in two ways either by taking a live photo or by uploading a photo from the photo library.

Filter A Live Photo

The following are ways to take a photo and filter it with face app.

  • Launch the app
  • A live view will display on your camera with an overlay that is head-shaped
  • Position your face within the overlay
  • Tap the shutter button when you have got the framing right
  • Swipe through the filters and choose any one
  • Tap the save button or tap the share icon to share your photo

Filter A Photo From The Photo Library

  • Launch the app
  • Tap on the photos at the bottom of the screen and swipe upward to bring up the photo library
  • Tap to choose the photo you want to filter
  • Swipe through the filters and chose one
  • Tap the save button or the share icon to share your filtered photo.

How To Get Face App

Face app is a free app that can be downloaded to your device from the app store or Google play. To install face app on your device, open the app store or Google play, search for the app in store and click or tab install, download or get.

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